3.請依下文回答第 3 題至第 6 題：
Some of the most interesting words in English are the actual names of the people first involved in the
activities suggested by the meanings of the words. The word boycott, for instance, 3 the case of Sir Charles
Boycott (1832-97), a land agent in Ireland whose tenants ostracized him because he refused to lower their rents.
Vidkun Quisling’s name quickly became an infamous addition to the English language during World War II. He
was a Norwegian politician who 4 his country to the Nazis, and his name, quisling, is now synonymous with
traitor. A more common example is Levis. These popular blue jeans 5 Levi Strauss, the man who first
manufactured them in San Francisco in 1850. Perhaps the most omnipresent of all is the sandwich, named for the
Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-92), who created this quick portable meal so that he 6 leave the gambling
table to eat. Other words in this unique category include lynch, watt, davenport, and zeppelin. 【題組】 3 (A)derives from (B)has taken into (C)was drawn for (D)originated by
7.請依下文回答第 7 題至第 10 題： Do you have difficulties getting work done because computer games or online chatting occupy a great deal ofyour time? Do you value chat-room friends more than real friends because most of your friends are from onlinecontacts? The habits you develop from your computer use may cause significant problems in your life. Forinstance, feeling irritable or depressed when not using the computer, losing jobs or failing courses due to the lackof productivity on work or school assignments, and finally, feeling socially inept, since you lose the ability tointeract with people face to face. Symptoms, such as obsessively checking e-mail, losing track of time while on the computer, and neglectingfamily, work, friends, or even personal health and hygiene, are all indications of computer addiction. Thisaddiction can be described as compulsive. Not all people who spend hours each day on the computer, however, are considered addicted. That is, aperson who spends 8 hours or more a day on the computer may not automatically be regarded as a computeraddict while another person who spends less than 6 hours a day could suffer from an addition. It is important tonote each case is distinct and, therefore, the number of hours spent on the computer is not considered to be themain factor in identifying computer addiction. Rather, the kinds of activities, the level of compulsion, and otherways of using the computer are the real determining factors. A person who is obsessed with the computer is likely to have the following experiences or feelings: cravingfor the use of computer excessively; feeling anxious or gloomy when computer time is interrupted; telling lies tohide that you are actually playing games online; and neglecting friends, family, or responsibilities when online.Physical discomfort, such as back and neck aches, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, difficulty focusing your vision, dryeyes, and severe headaches may also be observed. Look out for these signs and get proper treatment, so you willregain control of your life. 【題組】 7 What does “socially inept” mean?
(A)conducive to companionship with others (B)unable to manage interactions with others (C)inclined to associate with others (D)willing to engage in activities with others
9.【題組】 9 Which of the following is true about identifying computer addiction?
(A)8 hours at a time on the computer. (B)6 hours a day on the computer. (C)More than 8 hours a day on the computer. (D)Length of time spent on the computer cannot be considered as the sole factor to identify it.
10.【題組】10 Which of the following is not the consequence of computer addition?
(A)losing track of time (B)having back and neck aches (C)having problems with relationships (D)having a burning desire to attend courses
11.請依下文回答第 11 題至第 15 題： Since 1970s, there has been a boom in such “international schools,” which teach in English innon-Anglophone countries, mostly offering British A-levels, American APs and SATs, or the InternationalBaccalaureate. But nowadays international schools increasingly 11 their name. Though their clientelevaries from place to place, four-fifths of the pupils they teach around the world are locals. Thirty years ago, justa fifth 12 . The main reason is increased 13 for schooling mostly or entirely in English, both in richcountries and even more from rich parents in developing countries who want their children to be able to go touniversity in Britain or North America. This new elite can outspend even very highly paid foreign managers—and multinationals trying to cutcosts are ever 14 willing to pay school fees. Locals are more appealing clients, too: their children tend tostay for their entire schooling, unlike “expat brats,” who are always moving on, leaving seats to be filled. Anda parent-teacher 15 packed with the local elite is more helpful than one full of foreigners. 【題組】11 (A)belie (B)oppress (C)testify (D)acclaim
16.請依下文回答第 16 題至第 20 題：
Today, Western wedding dresses are usually white. However, white did not become a popular option until
1840, after the marriage of Queen Victoria to Albert of Saxe-Coburg. Victoria wore a white gown for the event to
incorporate some lace she prized. The official wedding portrait photograph was widely published, and many other
brides 16 white in accordance with the Queen’s choice. The tradition continues today in the form of a white
wedding, though prior to the Victorian era, a bride was married 17 any color, black being especially popular
in Scandinavia. Later, many people assumed that the color white was intended to 18 virginity, though this
was not the original intention. The white gown is in fact a symbolic Christening gown. It is a 19 of the white
surplice worn in the Western Catholic tradition by members of the clergy, church choirs and servers and the
gowns worn by girls celebrating their first communion and at their confirmation and also by women making
religious 20 . Jews have gone to great lengths to follow these Western customs, whilst adhering to the laws of
Tzniut. Today, the white dress is understood merely as the most traditional and popular choice for weddings. 【題組】 16 (A)alluded to (B)caught on (C)moved into (D)opted for
21.請依下文回答第 21 題至第 25 題： Are you one of those so-called “armchair athletes” who follow your favorite sports team’s every gamecheering along but do not physically play the game? Although a recent study suggests that watching sport canmake you fitter, it is time to stop staying on the sidelines and 21 . According to research, viewing other people exercise increases heart rate and other physiological measuresas if you were working out yourself. However, if you are truly health 22 , it is even better and more effectiveto put it into practice. Playing a sport is not only fun but also boosts fitness and improves self-confidence.Learning a new sport can be tough and challenging. 23 your body and mind to follow the rules and specificmovements might be a challenge at first, but regular practice will make this easier. For example, swimming hasbeen known to be beneficial to those who suffer from asthma. Swimming improves good lung capacity andlearning to swim can help asthmatics develop 24 as well. The key to finding a sport you like is to try your hand at something you think you might like to do. Since youspend lots of time watching your favorite sports, why not try one of them first. This will increase yourappreciation of that particular sport and also give you 25 experience of what your favorite athletes are goingthrough out there. If you feel that it is not for you, then try your next choice. Repeat until you find something thatyou like. After all, cheering on your favorite team is great, but playing and experiencing some of it yourself isdeeply satisfying. 【題組】 21 (A)participate (B)speculate (C)mediate (D)calculate
26.請依下文回答第 26 題至第 30 題： It seemed like a curse. The summer of 821 was wet, cold and yielded a poor harvest. Then winter came.Temperatures plunged. Blizzards smothered towns and villages. The Danube, the Rhine and the Seine – rivers thatnever froze – froze so hard that the ice covering them could be crossed not just on foot but by horse and cart. Nordid spring bring respite. Terrible hailstorms followed the snow. Plague and famine followed the storms. The nextfew winters were worse. Fear stalked the land. Paschasius Radbertus, a monk of Corbie, in what is now northernFrance, wrote that God Himself was angry. Yet it was not God that wrought this destruction, according to UlfBüntgen of the University of Cambridge, but rather a volcano now called Katla, on what was then an unknownisland, now called Iceland. At the moment Katla, one of Iceland’s largest volcanoes, located near the island’s southern tip, sleepsbeneath 700 metres of ice. It has so slept, albeit fitfully, for almost 100 years. Its last eruption big enough to breakthrough the ice was in 1918. A score of such ice-breaking awakenings have been recorded by Icelanders since thefirst Norsemen settled there in 870. In 821, however, Iceland was not on the Norsemen’s horizon. They wereconcentrating their activities on the lootable monasteries and villages of coastal Europe. There is thus noman-made record of what Katla was up to then. But Dr. Büntgen thinks he has found a natural one. Amemorandum of an eruption that coincides with the events described by Radbertus is, he believes, written in aprehistoric forest. Large volcanic eruptions can affect the weather. In particular they eject sulphur dioxide, which reacts withatmospheric gases to form sulphate aerosols that reflect sunlight back into the space, cooling the air beneath. Thatis well known. So the suspicion that what happened in the early 820s was precipitated by such an eruption hasbeen around for a long time. 【題組】 26 Which of the following is NOT mentioned about the winter of 821 in Europe in the first paragraph?
(A)It was the coldest one in the early 820s. (B)The big rivers – the Danube, the Rhine and the Seine – froze. (C)The next spring did not make things better. (D)It subsequently brought fear among people.
27.【題組】27 In the 820s, what would NOT be recognized by Paschasius Radbertus, a monk of Corbie?
(A)God Himself wrought the destruction. (B)Plague and famine followed the storms. (C)Hailstorms followed the snow. (D)The bad weather was caused by a volcano.
28.【題組】 28 What can we know about the volcano Katla from this passage?
(A)It has not erupted for 200 years. (B)It is located near Iceland’s southern tip. (C)It lies underneath 700 metres of sea water. (D)It has not erupted since the Icelanders’ settlement in 870.
30.【題組】 30 According to this passage, which piece of information is NOT true about volcanic eruptions?
(A)The ejected sulphur dioxide would react with atmospheric gases. (B)Once sulphate aerosols are formed, they would reflect sunlight back into space. (C)After the eruption, the air beneath sulphate aerosols might become hotter. (D)Large volcanic eruptions can affect the weather.
31.請依下文回答第 31 題至第 35 題： Experiments that go according to plan can be useful. But the biggest scientific advances often emerge fromthose that do not. Such is the case with a study just reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences. When they began it, Hector DeLuca of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and his colleagues hadbeen intending to examine the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on mice suffering from a rodent version of multiplesclerosis (MS). By the project’s end, however, they had in their hands two substances which may prove valuabledrugs against the illness. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease. This means it is caused by a victim’s immune system turningon and destroying parts of his own body. In the case of MS the targets of these attacks, which may continue foryears, are the fatty sheaths that insulate nerve cells and thus help nervous impulses to propagate. People sufferingfrom MS are often weakened, and sometimes physically disabled by it, and may also become blind. What drives the immune system to behave in this way remains mysterious, but in the 1970s researchersuncovered a promising clue when they noticed that MS is rarer near the equator than it is at high latitudes. Thefirst hypothesis proposed to explain this observation was that vitamin D (a substance created by sunlight’s actionon precursor molecules in the skin) might be helping to prevent MS. That made sense, since those living in thetropics receive more sunlight than those in temperate zones. Sadly, follow-up experiments failed to support thenotion. Those experiments did, though, lead Dr. DeLuca to discover that the preventive effect is associated with aparticular sort of sunlight—UV with a wavelength of between 300 and 315 nanometres (billionths of a metre). Hislatest experiment was intended to dig deeper into this observation, by using this type of light to irradiate mice thathad been injected with chemicals known to cause the rodent equivalent of MS. 【題組】 31 According to the passage, what can we know of Dr. DeLuca’s project?
(A)It aims to treat MS patients at high latitudes. (B)It leads to results different from the team’s expectation. (C)It involves vitamin D’s effect on UV prevention. (D)It involves mice suffering from the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light.
32.【題組】 32 Which of the following is NOT true about MS (multiple sclerosis)?
(A)It is an autoimmune disease. (B)People suffering from it are sometimes physically disabled by it. (C)People suffering from it may become blind. (D)The targets of MS attacks are the nerve cells.
33.【題組】33 What led to the 1970s’ hypothesis that vitamin D might be helping to prevent MS?
(A)MS is rarer near the equator than it is at high latitudes. (B)Those living in the tropics receive more sunlight than those in temperate zones. (C)The follow-up experiments supported the notion. (D)A particular sort of sunlight was discovered.
34.【題組】 34 What does “Proceedings” mean in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences?
(A)a series of scientific experiments (B)a record of legal documents (C)a record of academic findings (D)a series of economic reports
35.【題組】 35 What is the unintended result of Dr. DeLuca’s experiment?
(A)It ruled out the helpfulness of vitamin D. (B)It turned out they had focused on the wrong sort of sunlight. (C)It could not determine the effects of UV light on mice suffering from MS. (D)It found that two substances might prove valuable drugs against MS.
36.請依下文回答第 36 題至第 40 題： By about age 12, students who feel threatened by mathematics start to avoid math courses, do poorly in thefew math classes they do take, and earn low scores on math-achievement tests. Some scientists have theorized thatkids having little math aptitude in the first place justifiably dread grappling with numbers. However, it is not thatsimple, at least for college students, according to a study in the Journal of Experimental Psychology. According tothe study, people’s intrusive worries about math temporarily disrupt mental processes needed for doing arithmeticand drag down math competence, report Mark H. Ashcraft and Elizabeth P. Kirk, both psychologists at Cleveland(Ohio) State University. Math anxiety exerts this effect by making it difficult to hold new information in mindwhile simultaneously manipulating it, the researchers hold. Psychologists regard this capacity, known as workingmemory, as crucial for dealing with numbers. “Math anxiety soaks up working memory resources and makes itharder to learn mathematics, probably beginning in middle school,” Ashcraft says. 【題組】 36 What did psychologists Ashcraft and Kirk report?
(A)Doing poorly in math tends not to cause math anxiety. (B)College students learn math differently from 12-year-olds. (C)Worrying about math makes it harder to do math. (D)Students should take harder math classes starting in middle school.
38.【題組】 38 What theory does the Ashcraft and Kirk study challenge?
(A)Math anxiety improves math performance. (B)Math anxiety is a result of low math aptitude. (C)Starting to study math at a young age improves math performance. (D)The more math aptitude one has, the less working memory is needed.
39.【題組】 39 What is the purpose of this passage?
(A)to report a study about math anxiety (B)to describe how to teach math better (C)to praise the way math is taught (D)to dispute the work of Ashcraft and Kirk
40.【題組】 40 What can be inferred from this passage?
(A)Students who have math anxiety should not be forced to take math classes after middle school. (B)Math aptitude can be accurately determined before middle school. (C)Students should learn math as much as possible whether they like it or not. (D)Students usually do not feel threatened by math before the age of 12.
【非選題】 41.一、英譯中（15 分）
While the tariffs are aimed at hurting China, they are also having an impact on
American consumers and businesses that rely on products from China’s factories.
Farmers and manufacturers, in particular, have complained that they are bearing the
brunt of the trade war as China raises the price on imported soybeans and other
agriculture products that it typically buys from farms and on materials and products
imported by manufacturers to make machinery, clothes and other products.
【非選題】 43.三、英文作文（20 分）：請根據下面的指示，寫出一篇大約 200 字的短文。
Read the excerpt below carefully and think about the assignment that follows.
Sometimes in soccer, an attempt to defend one’s turf results in a score for
the opposing team—an “own goal.” There have already been nine such
incidents of self-sabotage in the 2018 World Cup, by far the most in the
history of the tournament. But you won’t find the most spectacular
example of the summer on the pitch in Russia. That distinction goes to
Donald Trump’s administration, whose determination to start a trade war
with China is, like the best own goals in soccer, muscular in its approach,
blind in its aim, and self-injurious in its consequences.
–Derek Thompson. Why Donald Trump’s Trade War Will Fail.
The Atlantic, July 7, 2018.
Assignment: Based on the excerpt, what is an “own goal”? What are the implicit
similarities between “the best own goals in soccer” and Donald Trump’s trade war
with China? Do you agree with Derek Thompson’s opinion of the trade war?
Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading,
studies, experience, or observations.